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The Game Of Thrones - Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Introduction According the documentary it is important that we understand that three primary, distinct, in addition, interrelated emotion systems in the brain help us in mating, reproducing, and rearing of our young ones. For this reason, there is a great correlation between our emotional system with lust, attraction, and attachment. Sexual Selection and Natural Selection Words | 3 Pages. Selection is the functional relationship between phenotypes and fitness. Natural selection is the production of organisms according to their physical attributes whereby off springs of the younger generations takes the strong, desired and inheritable aspects of their parents. May 22, · Sexual selection theory predicts that the sex experiencing stronger sexual selection should illustrate Bateman’s three principles: (i) a higher variance in reproductive success; (ii) a higher variance in mating success; and, crucially, (iii) a stronger association between mating and reproductive success, the so-called Bateman gradient (7, 17, 18).Cited by: 146 best cursive quotes images on Pinterest in 2018 | Wise
A Discussion on the Beginning of Law Schools and the Study of Law in United States - Mar 11, · Assignment 2: Film Analysis. Due Monday, October 22 Analyze a movie with regard to what we have learned about sexuality. Your assignment should not be written like a general film review found in the campus paper or other newspaper, but instead written from the perspective of a student studying the sociology of gender. Jun 28, · Abstract In Darwin's and Fisher's theory of sexual selection, females prefer ornamented males; the evolution of larger ornaments is limited by increased mortality, lor example through predation. An adornment of given size should often raise mortality more in Cited by: Jan 28, · Articles on Sexual selection Displaying 1 - 20 of 31 articles The role of women in futuristic drama TV series ‘The Handmaid’s Tale’ makes references to Darwin’s writings on evolution. How to choose between the SAT and ACT?
best riding suv consumer report - Aug 20, · Does cost-benefit analysis or self-control predict involvement in two forms of can be better explained by sexual selection than by the alternative biosocial version of social role theory. Thus, sex differences in physical aggression increase with the degree of risk, occur early in life, peak in young adulthood, and are likely to be mediated. May 29, · Sexual selection was an idea proposed by Darwin and refers to the process in which males and females attempt to maximize their chances of reproductive success. Within a species there are certain characteristics that make individuals attractive to potential mates. Apr 13, · This brand new documentary tells the story of two teenage girls whose sexual assaults were recorded on camera and shared across social media, resulting in devastating consequences for both the girls and their families. What makes this recent and raw story all the more heartbreaking is that only one is still alive to tell their story. Uncover Term Paper On Site Investigation Expert
united nations human development report 1995 - Sep 07, · 1. Introduction. The role of sexual signals in maintaining reproductive isolation between lineages has long been recognized , leading to the explicit proposal that sexual selection—that is, selection within and between the sexes, driven by competition for matings—is a powerful evolutionary force promoting speciation [2,3].This hypothesis is well supported by theoretical models. Sexual selection also appears to favor divergence in shape, perhaps allowing males to maneuver their penises in novel ways. Importantly, our study rejects a common assumption (mostly among noncetacean biologists) that cetacean pelvic bones are “useless vestiges” (Curtis and Barnes ), and instead suggest they are a critical component of. The beneficiaries of selection are the individuals that are left over after all the less fit individuals have been eliminated. Natural selection thus is a process of “nonrandom elimination.” Spencer’s statement, “survival of the fittest,” was quite legitimate, provided the term fittest is properly defined. Copare/Contrast essay, Need desperate help!!?
An Examination of St. Augustines Just War Theory and the Persian Gulf War - Explain, with examples, how the process of natural selection and sexual selection are thought to have contributed to modern-day behaviour.“Evolution: The gradual process by which species develop from earlier forms” (Clegg, , p ). For thousands of years lay people have argued about how the. Aug 23, · The mane of the African lion (Panthera leo) is a highly variable trait that reflects male condition and ambient temperature. We examined the consequences of this variation in a long-term study of lions in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Mane darkness indicates nutrition and testosterone and influences both female choice and male-male competition. Jan 25, · Sexual selection for exaggerated secondary sexual traits arises from two different mechanisms that result in correlations between male traits and mating success—male-male competition for access to females and female mate choice (1, 2).These mechanisms can be difficult to disentangle (), but direct female choice for extravagant male traits has been shown in many taxa (). College recommendation letter?
cheats vietnam special assignment 2 pc - I fitted phylogenetic generalised least squares models using sexual size dimorphism as the dependent variable and each of the seven measures of intensity of sexual selection as independent variables. I conducted this comparative analysis with data from 50 extant species of primates, including Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, and Gorilla spp. Sexual dimorphism is a product of sexual selection. In intersexual selection, a sex chooses a mate. In intrasexual selection, individuals of one sex compete among themselves for access to mates. Often honest, costly signals are used to help the sex that chooses make decisions. Oct 01, · We performed the analysis twice, once for short-term and once for long-term mates. Starting with short-term mates, the results indicated the sex to be a significant predictor of the partner's sexual orientation [χ 2 (4, N = ) = , p. causes of overpopulation in nigeria
write my summary hearing - Sexuality Sexuality affects people through defining who they are and how they express themselves. People experience sexuality in a wide range whereby some people get considered as very sexual while others do not experience feelings of sexual attraction at all (Darroch et al. ). In this collection of essays, the author clearly explains how structural and functional limitations, phylogeny, and natural selection together impose design constraints on organisms. Sexual selection and allometry: a critical reappraisal of the evidence and ideas. Evolution, Bonduriansky R. and Day, T. The evolution of static allometry in sexually selected traits. Evolution, Borkovic, B. and Russell, A. Sexual selection according to Darwin: a response to Padian and Horner’s. malaise. Essay help
case study of economics pdf - Sexual selection, theory in postulating that the evolution of certain conspicuous physical traits—such as pronounced coloration, increased size, or striking adornments—in animals may grant the possessors of these traits greater success in obtaining mates. From the perspective of natural selection. The term “sexual orientation” refers to a model of sexual, romantic, or emotional attraction to the opposite sex, same sex or both sexes, which correspondingly are defined as heterosexuality, homosexuality, and 190tolstoyru.somee.com also unofficially exists the fourth orientation, which is asexuality (lack of sexual, romantic, or emotional attraction to others). To further test for differences among fields within evolutionary biology, we can compare the impact of papers on, for example, sexual selection, natural selection or speciation. Indeed, we find that, at least for papers on sexual selection and natural selection, there are significant differences among journals over and above the differences. A Research on Workplace Violence and Its Causes
The Environmental Issue of Water Pollution in the United States - Sexual selection, which Darwin believed was distinct from natural selection, involves the selection of traits based on their role in courtship and mating. Artificial selection is the selective breeding of species by humans to increase desirable traits, though the traits do not necessarily have to . In Thatcher's paper on offensive sexual selection, she made several points regarding the male investment in offspring, analogizing the selection process as a soccer game. She wrote that both defensive and offensive players are necessary. This made sense, but it seems that the defense could be rendered useless if the offspring is prolific enough. Using the same meta-analysis framework as Kingsolver, et al. , this paper summarizes the data in terms of sexual and viability selection. Kingsolver, J. G, H. E. Hoekstra, J. M. Hoekstra, et al. The strength of phenotypic selection in natural populations. American Naturalist – DOI: / E-mail Citation». ibfilmsas - Edward Scissorhands
EMPLOYEE WRITTEN WARNING & GUIDE - LegalZoom - Sexual dimorphism often arises from selection on specific musculoskeletal traits that improve male fighting performance. In humans, one common form of fighting includes using the fists as weapons. Here, we tested the hypothesis that selection on male fighting performance has led to the evolution of sexual dimorphism in the musculoskeletal system that powers striking with a fist. Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in 190tolstoyru.somee.com is a key mechanism of evolution, the change in the heritable traits characteristic of a population over generations. Charles Darwin popularised the term "natural selection", contrasting it with artificial selection, which in his view is intentional, whereas natural selection is not. To solve the problem, Darwin formulated his theory of sexual selection, which psychologist Geoffrey F. Miller calls "Darwin's most ingenious idea." According to Miller, "these ornaments are not for our good. They're to advertise each individual's fitness, its goodness as a mate, to the opposite sex.". A Study of Alcohol and Alcoholics
The Root Causes and Impact of the Asian Crisis That Began in Thailand in July 1997 - " the last great ape: bonobos" sexual activity of estrus is a trait of? D. Bonobos and Humans Base on the analysis provided by the anthropologist Dr. Taylor essay "The origins of Human Sexual Culture", Heterosexual reproductive sex was the dominant form of sexual behavior is early human society. Dec 26, · The main concepts of evolution through natural selection. Summary of Charles Darwin's essay on natural selection. Discovery of natural selection in different species — specifics and common features. Darwin evolution in relation to Intelligent design. That information is enough to craft a good paper on natural selection or evolution. SEXUAL SELECTION AND THE MIND A Talk with Goeffrey Miller. GEOFFREY MILLER: My goal at this point really is to take evolutionary psychology the next step, and to apply standard of evolutionary theory as much as possible to explain the whole gamut of the human mind, human emotions, human social life, human sexual behavior as much as possible. An Introduction to the Realism and Naturalism in 20th Century American Fiction
australian advertising industry report home - If sexual selection is prominent in lekking birds, then we should be able to evaluate the intensity of sexual selection in various birds and to find a more intense level of sexual selection in the birds that lek. We should also account for the mechanisms and consequences of behavior and morphology of the sexes by the sexual selection. May 22, · The complex Fourier analysis they completed based on photos of the fish and their habitats supported and greatly expanded on sensory drive theory, a sexual selection theory that emphasizes the. Jun 18, · The analysis in characterizes the ranges of selection parameters, such as dominance or cost to males and gain to females, which guarantee the persistence of the trait in a population, with results that are in principle experimentally testable. However, a comparison with available data, which we perform here (see below), shows that one-locus. Ted Ellis - HURST, TX Real Estate Agent - realtor.comВ®
Article number: Author biographies Plain-language and multi-lingual abstracts PDF version. The allometry in the frill and jugal bosses of the small ornithischian dinosaur Protoceratops andrewsi are assessed. An analysis of 37 specimens, encompassing four distinct size classes of animal, shows that the frill in both length and width undergoes positive allometry during Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper, while the jugals also show a trend towards an increase Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper relative size.
In conjunction with other Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper, this Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper support that these features were under selection Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper socio-sexual dominance signals. David W. Dylan Wood. Robert J. Positive allometry for exaggerated structures in the ceratopsian dinosaur Protoceratops andrewsi supports socio-sexual signaling. Palaeontologia Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper It has been suggested by several authors e.
Some modern signaling traits are also Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper in social signaling that can be more or less related to reproduction West-Eberhard, ; Kraaijeveld et al. These ideas remain controversial, however, with misunderstandings over mutual sexual selection and the evolutionary biology of costly signals leading to recent exchanges in the literature regarding the validity of sexual selection as a hypothesis to explain exaggerated structures present in extinct animals e. The fundamental Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper with trying to understand the biology of extinct organisms is that we cannot observe their behaviour directly and thus it is difficult to assess Hone and Faulkes, As a consequence we have to fall back on more indirect assessments of whether a trait evolved through sexual selection, one of which is the rate of change of the traits in question during ontogeny e.
It has been acknowledged for some years now that one feature of many sexually selected traits is positive allometry—a slope greater than 1 when the log trait size is regressed against log body size e. This positive allometry means that the trait in question increases more than proportionally with body size, so that large animals have proportionally larger traits than smaller ones. Not all traits that are sexually selected are positively allometric Bonduriansky,and there are a few examples of positively allometric traits that are not SparkNotes: The Canterbury Tales: Important Quotations sexual selection. For example, Simmons and Tomkins reported that earwig elytra show some degree of positive allometry, and Green described positive allometry for tail length in smooth newts Triturus vulgarisbut these are rare and probably mostly associated with Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper traits.
Sexually selected display traits and weapons, by contrast, are certainly very commonly positively allometric Kodric-Brown et al. Allometric relations can be extracted from Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper fossil record when sufficient specimens are available, meaning that we can test hypotheses regarding the evolution of putative sexually selected traits by estimating their allometry. If a trait is shown to be positively allometric then, in the absence of a plausible alternative regarding its evolution, we can take this as evidence supporting a hypothesis of evolution via sexual selection or socio-sexual dominance signals e.
The herbivorous ornithischian dinosaurs provide an important case for allometry linked to sexual or socio-sexual selection in the fossil record. There are numerous, well-preserved specimens including both juveniles of various sizes and adults Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper 1and all known members show a variety of cranial structures including horns, bosses and in particular a large frill that extends from the back of Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper head over the neck Dodson et al.
However, although these conclusions echoed some similar patterns observed in Protoceratops by Brown and Schlaikjerthey were limited by a lack of complete specimens that spanned a broad range of ages. Similarly, Dodson assessed Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper dimorphism in Protoceratops and his analyses included allometric regressions of Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper measurements, but his study focused on adult or near-adult animals with only a very limited sample Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper younger specimens.
In at least some ceratopsians the horns were used in intraspecific combat Farke et al. A particularly wide range of explanations has been proposed for the functions of the ceratopsian frill including: as a temperature regulating device, as an aposematic signal, as a defence against predators and for socio-sexual dominance signals. However, in most taxa Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper of these can be ruled out see Hone et al. Here we assess the growth of the frill in Protoceratops based on a larger sample of specimens and across a range of body sizes in excess of an order of magnitude, including animals that can be assigned to four distinct size classes from young juveniles to large adults Hone et al.
We show that An Analysis of the Role of Hades in the Mythology of Ancient Greece Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper length and width of the frill Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper positively allometric, suggesting a Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper function. Data on Protoceratops andrewsi skulls were taken from the literature and measured from published photographs of specimens. Data on Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper specimens of P.
In his analysis of Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper dimorphism, Dodson illustrated a number of major metrics of skull and frill dimensions based around landmarks of the cranium. His measure of basal skull length variable 1 of Dodson, was taken as the standard unit of Indian Philosophy: Volume I: with an of the skull Dodson measured Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper the tip of the snout to the base of the articular in line with the ventralmost point of the lower temporal fenestra also corresponding to the position of the foramen magnum. The width of the frill was measured as the maximum width of the frill variable 9 of Dodson,and liberty global ziggo presentation ministries width across the jugal bosses variable 8 of Dodson, was recorded, as were the orbit length and height Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper 13 and 14 of Dodson, Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper measurements from younger specimens were taken from smallest to largest Fastovsky et al.
These non-adult specimens at least all correspond to similar localities within the Djadochta Formation and can be considered part of a single population see Hone et al. Measurements were taken from figures in the papers and unpublished photographs by the authors. The measurements taken from these non-adult animals were made using the program ImageJ Schneider et al. Where images of the small specimens presented the skull only in dorsal view A Look into Woodstock Music Festival. Similarly, additional measurements were taken for the frill of the smallest specimens. The length of the frill was taken to a point midway between the dorsoposterior margin of the orbit and the anteriomedial margin of the fenestra, but a maximum frill length and minimum frill length were Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper recorded, terminating at Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper respective points on the orbit and fenestra Figure 3.
Measurements of specimens taken from photographs may be subject to parallax error; however, as far as possible photographs were taken parallel to the long axis of the respective total skull length cf Figure 3 to minimise the effects of these errors. A total of 37 specimens were included in the analysis, although not all measurements were available for each Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper. Specimens ranged in size from a basal skull length of Assessment was based on the search for positive allometry of the crests with respect to Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper of other elements see Tomkins et al.
This measure has been shown by Dodson to change isometrically with other major features of Essay/Term paper: Religious skull suggesting it is an Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper metric for this purpose. Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper there are obvious limitations with small Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper Brown and Vavrek,the data set used here is larger than a number of previous assessments of allometry in fossil taxa and covers a greater range of animal sizes, and thus is sufficient given the limitations of the fossil record. Allometric slopes for the log-transformed values for frill length and width, the width across the jugal bosses and also orbit length and width were calculated using Standardised Major Axis SMA regressions Warton et al.
SMA is sometimes referred to as Reduced Major Axis but it has been argued that this latter term can be misleading and is, in fact, based on a mistranslation from the French Warton et al. Tests for deviation of the slopes from a value of 1 were carried out by calculating an r test statistic in the same way as for a conventional linear regression as recommended in Warton et al. Sexual dimorphism has been proposed to explain the frill A Book Report on Never Cry Wolf by Farley Mowat other cranial characteristics of P.
However, sexual dimorphism has recently been reassessed and rejected as a hypothesis for these characteristics Maiorino et al. This would also have reduced the amount of available data for each analysis if the sexes were treated separately. Both frill length and frill width showed positive allometry in Protoceratops Table 1Figure 4. The width across the jugal bosses gave an allometric slope Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper was not significantly different from 1, although the slope was suggestive of positive allometry with confidence intervals which only just overlapped with 1 0. As skull basal length increases, therefore, both the length Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper the width of the frill become larger relative to the rest of the skull.
By contrast with the increase in frill length and width, both orbit length and orbit height showed negative allometry, although height increased with basal skull length faster than did width, indicating that the shape of the orbits changed as Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper animals got larger. As can Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper seen from Figure 2small Protoceratops have orbits that are longer than they are high, whereas the larger animals have orbits that are closer to being circular, with orbit length and orbit height Characteristics of Puerto Rican Parrot roughly equal in the largest specimens.
The results here provide Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper evidence for the growth of the frill in Protoceratops andrewsi being greater than the overall growth of the animal by demonstrating positive allometry Table 1. The different dimensions of the frill show different allometric slopes, demonstrating that the frill changed in shape as well as size as the changes in frill width are slightly greater than length. That cessation of growth is not seen here, though the limited number of specimens in Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper analysis means that this pattern could have been caused by one or a few unusual individuals. Chapman suggested that the length of the frill in Bagaceratops was close to isometry, but this is not the case here.
Dodson used a different allometric regression technique to that used here, but the results should still be qualitatively comparable. However, his dataset contained only one small individual basal skull length under mm with most specimens representing subadults or adults, though it is still a rather different result to our own that shows consistent positive allometry for the frill across all skull sizes.
Furthermore, the metrics used here are a simplification of the changes that Protoceratops experiences as other patterns are clearly visible though not directly assessed here. For example, as well as increasing in both length and width, the crest also appears to deflects upwards in adults to be steeply inclined relative to the skull roof whereas it is largely in line with the skull roof in younger animals Figure 1Figure 2. Although there is not a complete ontogenetic sequence available for Protoceratopsthis deflection is not Essay writer funny.
Buy an Essay in younger specimens suggesting that it does not occur until the animals are relatively old. This change also means that the length of the frill is effectively foreshortened when measured in lateral or dorsal view as done here cf. Dodson, rather than measuring along the actual elements of the frill themselves. Thus as the frill deflects in older individuals this measurement will underestimate the true length of the frill and the proportional growth rate is therefore likely to be greater than that calculated here.
Maiorino et al. This latter increase in the nasal bump was An Introduction to the Aboriginal Concept of Land Ownership noted by Brown and Schlaikjer and is effectively the same point raised by Lull and Gray who noted an increase in depth in the nasal region. Finally, the smallest specimens have large supratemporal fenestrae that dominate the frill and almost contact the Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper, whereas in adults these fenestrae are closed and the fenestrae in witness in court case expense report frill are limited to the posterior part of the frill Figure 2.
Interestingly the width of the skull across the Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper is here shown not to differ from isometry. The result we have returned may be confounded by an overall change in the shape of the skull as we and others have measured the entire width of the skull including the jugal bosses, rather than just the bosses themselves. Additional data may confirm if this dimension is truly isometric or does demonstrate positive allometry, though if they are isometric, it would suggest a functional role that does not change with ontogeny. Orbit size has been used as a metric against which other values can be scaled in assessments of ontogenetic allometry in extinct amniotes and may be isometric in at least some taxa Tomkins et al.
Both of these observations are consistent with the results Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper here showing a strong negative allometry for the orbit but also a change in shape given the differences in slope recovered for the two different dimensions. The positive allometry seen in the frill demonstrates that the frill grows faster than the rest of the animal How do I know if my SAT score is enough to get into a school? individuals increase in size.
Definitions of maturity in non-avian dinosaurs are complicated as at least some What are some of the more creative fake names you have seen or reported on Quora? reproductively mature before they were fully osteologically mature e. However, it is clear that the frill was disproportionally small in younger individuals, grew faster than the rest of the animal during ontogeny, and reached full size Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper in large adult specimens. Such a pattern of rapid growth combined with ontogenetic change makes socio-sexual dominance displays a strong hypothesis to explain these results Knell et al.
If the frill acted as medpac report on readmissions parody socially or sexually selected signal, this would explain other observed patterns in Protoceratops. It is common for animals to exhibit multiple sexually selected traits Omland, and this would match the potential use of the premaxillary teeth Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper the neural spines of the tail as additional signals. The former might have a role in signaling or even intraspecific combat, and it has been suggested by Tereschenko and Singer that the tail of Protoceratops might be well suited to being raised as a signal. As dinosaurs apparently reached sexual maturity before full adult size this may also potentially explain the isometric Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper of the frill recorded by Dodson for his study of subadult and adult animals.
If the subadults were sexually mature then this may correlate with Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper growth of the frill to reach proportional peak size at this point in order to act as a viable signal of maturity. Species recognition has been advocated as a selective pressure Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper explain the presence of crests such as ceratopsian frills in various dinosaurian taxa e. This has been strongly criticised as it fails to explain the observed patterns in crest distribution on taxa, or the presence of such costly signals in the fossil record that are unknown in extant taxa e. It is possible that the presence of An Introduction to the Realism and Naturalism in 20th Century American Fiction crests in adults did help individuals recognise conspecifics, but this would be a co-opted function, not the primary origin and drive behind its evolution Hone and Naish, In the case of the latter aspect, this is not Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper for P.
Although many specimens of P. As such, if the frill was important to help identify conspecifics in aggregations, then it would be selected to be present in even young animals, or alternatively The Relationship Between Corporations and the Environmental Impact the frill as seen in juveniles was a sufficient signal, there would be no need for it to increase in size and change shape in adults.
In terms of mate recognition, as noted for other ceratopsians Hone and Naish,the fact that the frill continued to change Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper professional resume writer online sexual maturity would potentially confound signals. In addition, neither aspect of species recognition explains the strong similarity of frill and indeed general cranial Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper of P.
Selection for recognition would drive species to produce more disparate, rather than highly Analysis of a Documentary on Sexual Selection Term Paper forms Hone and Naish, Similar patterns of positive allometric growth of cranial crests during ontogeny are also seen in other ornithischian dinosaurs.